CONVENTION: Binding agreement between states; used synonymously with TREATY and COVENANT. Conventions are stronger than DECLARATIONS because they are legally binding for governments that have signed them. When the UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY adopts a convention, it creates international norms and standards. Once a convention is adopted by the UN General Assembly, MEMBER STATES can then RATIFY the convention, promising to uphold it. Governments that violate the standards set forth in a convention can then be censured by the UN.
· Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labor, ILO No. 29, 1932
· Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1949*
· Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, 1949
· Four Geneva Conventions on the Protection of Victims of Armed Conflict, 1949*
· Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951*
· Slavery Convention of 1926, Amended by Protocol, 1953*
· European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Eight Protocols, 1950
· Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, 1961
· International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1966*
· Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, 1968
· Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1976
· Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 1979
· Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1984*
· African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 1986
· Charter for the Organization of American States, 1988*
· Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989
· Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and the Members of their Families, 1990
· Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1991
· Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Adopted 2000
Note: Date refers to the year of adoption by the UN General Assembly or particular regional body.
*Conventions ratified by the United States.